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Toothed chisel = also called a 'claw' chisel, looks a little like a strong fork with two and sometimes as many as eight 'teeth'.
Troglodytism = living in caves. People still live in caves, usually with modern conveniences. There are cave dwellings along the Loire valley in France or along the cliffs of Matera, in southern Italy. In northern france there is a cave that sheltered, and hid an entire village.
Touchstone = a touchstone is a black stone that was formerly used to judge the purity of gold or silver. The metal was rubbed on the stone and the color of the streak it left indicated its quality. In modern English, both "touchstone" and its synonym "paragon" have come to signify a standard against which something should be judged.
Treustein = in Germany, and perhaps elsewhere, a stone was often built into a structure that faced the inner synagogue courtyard, inscribed with the initial letters of the verse from Jeremiah where God blesses Abraham ( 'I will greatly bless you and I will exceedingly multiply your children as the stars in the heaven' ). Marriage ceremonies were concluded by the groom shattering a glass goblet at the treustein.
Tufa = is a variety of limestone, formed by the precipitation of carbonate minerals from ambient temperature water bodies. Geothermally heated hot-springs sometimes produce similar (but less porous) carbonate deposits known as travertine.
(Tufa is sometimes referred to as (meteogene) travertine in contrast with hot spring (or thermogene) travertine; care must be taken when searching through literature to prevent confusion of these two separate stones.
Calcareous tufa should also not be confused with tuff, a porous volcanic rock with parallel etymological origins. [ see below]
Tuff = is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. Tuff is sometimes called tufa, particularly when used as construction material, although tufa also refers to a quite different rock. Rock that contains greater than 50% tuff is considered tuffaceous.
Tuthmose = Thutmose was the official court sculptor of the Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. A German archaeological expedition digging in Akhenaten's deserted city of Akhetaton, at Amarna, found a ruined house and studio complex identified as that of Thutmose during its 1912 excavations. Among many sculptural items recovered at the same time was the famous polychrome bust of Nefertiti, apparently a master study for others to copy, and an early example of the use of the sculptural model, probably the same size as the intended finished sculpture. In addition to Nefertiti were a number of plaster casts that have been identified as representing various members of the royal family and their entourage, including Akhenaten, his other wife Kiya, his late father Amenhotep III, his eventual successor Ay and others.
Much of Thutmose's studio and discovered objects are displayed in the Ägyptisches Museum Berlin, certainly the earliest example of a sculptor's studio.
Tomb = from the Latin tumba, meaning a burial stone, simple or monumental.
Trilithon = a structure made up of three stones: two uprights and a horizontal lintel. Three trilithons stand within the sarsen horseshoe at Stonehenge.
Trope = the term "trope" is both a term which denotes figurative and metaphorical language and one which has been used in various technical senses.
Tumulus = Latin for mound or barrow; generally covers a burial, in a chamber (as in French use of word).
Tacit = unstated, or unspoken.
Templates = cut out two dimensional pattern, looking something like a silhouette, used to create three dimensional shapes.
Thigmophilic = touch-loving or sometimes, relying on touch to navigate an environment.
Rats for instance don't see very well. In addition to being commensal and neophobic, they crowd together and rely to a great degree on touch to navigate their environment. Biologists will refer to rats as thigmophilic.
Tool = an amplification and destabilisation.
Trepan = a kind of drill cutting a circle around an intact centre. Used to make perforations in a sculpture.
Temper = systematically applied cooling as part of a finishing step in forging metal to make it the appropriate hardness for the tool's use, which most of the time, but not always, means harder.
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