STONE project.


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Safety Equipment = safety glasses will protect eyes, gloves will protect hands from possible cuts from sharp stone chips, or specific gloves protect from vibration. A respirator or dust mask protects the lungs. When choosing to use pneumatic chisels or power grinders, ear protection is recommended.

Sandblasting = used frequently today for lettering, 'frosting' stone and occasionally in something called Shaped Carving to carve stone using either a double or triple sandblast technique (often supplemented with hand carving).

Sarcophagas = literally "flesh consuming" stone, because it was more likely limestone, the source of quicklime which does 'eat' flesh. Today the word can refer to any stone burial coffin, including granite which in contrast with limestone is called a 'fasting stone.'

Sarsens = Sandstone lying on Wiltshire Downs, in England; used for Stonehenge and Avebury, though not exclusively. Sarsen stones are the largest stones at Stonehenge.

Saxifraga = Saxifrage is a kind of plant with the ability to settle in the cracks of rocks, and grow to the point of splitting the stone. The Latin word saxifraga means literally "stone-breaker", from Latin saxum "rock" or "stone" + frangere "to break".

Schist = fine-grained rock, altered after formation by heat or pressure or both, so that mineral content is in roughly parallel layers. It can therefore be split into thin plates.

Scrupulous = having moral integrity : acting in strict regard for what is considered right or proper; punctiliously exact : painstaking. Scrupulous and its close relative scruple (an ethical consideration) from the Latin noun scrupulus, the diminutive of scrupus. Scrupus refers to a sharp stone, so scrupulus means small sharp stone. Scrupus retained its literal meaning but eventually also came to be used with the metaphorical meaning 'a source of anxiety or uneasiness,' the way a sharp pebble in one's shoe would be a source of pain. When the adjective "scrupulous" entered the language in the 15th century, it meant 'principled.' Now it also commonly means 'painstaking' or 'careful.'

Alois Senefelder = invented the technology of lithography in 1798.

Shale = solidified mud on its way to slate .

Shield = in archeology a design carved or chipped out on stone slabs characteristic of Breton tombs. It is a version of an antropomorphic figure.

Slab = a flat, relatively thin dressed stone.

Slate = A hard, brittle, fine-grained homogeneous rock consisting mainly of clay minerals. A traditional stone for roofing. Slate is a very stable stone.

Soapstone = a soft rock that contains a high proportion of talc. Because soapstone contains talc it gives a smooth feeling like you are rubbing a piece of dry soap.

Solnhofen = the area in Germany where lithography stones are quarried.

Spall = stone fragment or chip.

Stalled Cairn = a type of tomb found in the Orkney Islands and very similar to the 'gallery grave' design. The main chamber usually runs the length of the cairn and has lateral slabs forming 'stalls' as they project from the chamber wall. These stalls divide the tomb into compartments and simultaneously support the high roofing slabs.

Standing Stone = a lone vertical stone [see Menhir].

Standing-on-stones = there are several kinds of standing-on-stones re-occurring often in different contexts. In a traditional Hindu wedding, the bride would stand on a stone to symbolize her firm commitment to the marriage in times of difficulty. Ancient coronation stones sometimes had carved foot print-like depressions in which the king would stand.

Stereognosis = the ability to perceive the form of an object by using the sense of touch.

Stele = a monolith of modest size (less than 75 centimetres high) with only one face covered with cut-away carving or low relief sculpture.

Stone = (see Geology section) 

Stone of Scone = a sacred stone, embellished with myth and tradition, subject to speculation, envy, theft, re-theft, and occasional fakery.

Stone circle = a ring of spaced or contiguous standing stones which may not actually be circular; usually only roughly (or incompletely) dressed.

Stone Row = an alignment or line of regularly spaced standing stones

Subbia = (plural subbie) - a chisel (especially the sort used by stonemasons).

Summer = stone slab atop a pillar for supporting arch or lintel.

Synecdoche = meaning "simultaneous understanding".


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