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Rasps or Rifflers = abrasive tools with a sharp teeth file.
Redact = to conceal text from an official document before it is made public usually by blackening it out, although such parts might be physically cut out.
Rhyolite = a form of granite.
Rupestrian = made of, or written on, rock.
(rupestral or. rupestrine = living on or in rocks.)
Regolith = the term regolith is a combination of two Greek words: rhegos, "blanket", and lithos, "rock". The term was first defined by George P. Merrill in 1897 who stated, "In places this covering is made up of material originating through rock-weathering or plant growth in situ. In other instances it is of fragmental and more or less decomposed matter drifted by wind, water or ice from other sources. This entire mantle of unconsolidated material, whatever its nature or origin, it is proposed to call the regolith."
Rampart = large bank of earth and/or stones forming the defence of a fortified site such as a hillfort.
Recumbent stone circle = unique Scottish and Irish circle with one large stone lying horizontally between two uprights.
Revetment = stone wall designed to hold an earth rampart.
Ring Ditch = a circular shaped monument, very similar in structure to a henge. Many have been discovered to be ploughed-out barrows.
Rock-cut tomb = an underground monument hollowed out of solid rock for an individual but more likely a collective burial. Rock-cut tombs are frequently found in the Mediterranean basin.
Relief carving = a relief is a sculptured artwork where a carved or modeled form is raised—or, in a sunken-relief, lowered—from a plane from which the main elements of the composition project (or sink). Raising or lowering the plane is done by removing —in the case of a carved raised relief— material not relevant to the image, or —in the case of sunken relief— the material comprising the image (thus carving out the image).
There are three main types of relief. The drawing of the distinction between high and low is often drawn differently, and in fact the two are very often combined in a single work - in particular most "high-reliefs" contain sections in "low-relief".
A bas-relief (or low relief) is the quality of a projecting image where the overall depth is shallow. The background is very compressed or completely flat, as on most coins which are always low-relief. A bas-relief may use any medium or technique of sculpture, but stone carving and metal casting are the traditional ones. French pronunciation: from the Italian basso rilievo)
When more than half of most rounded or cylindrical elements such as heads and legs project from the background, a sculpture is usually considered to be alto rilievo or high relief. Although the degree of relief within both types may vary across a composition, with prominent features such as faces in higher relief.
Sunken-relief, also known as intaglio or hollow-relief, is where the image is made by carving into a flat surface - the images are predominantly linear in nature. Sunken-relief is most notably seen in the Ancient Egyptian art. Strong sunlight, characteristic of Egypt, is usually needed to make the technique successful for images.
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