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Magna = is molten stone.

"Magma generated by small amounts of partial melting of the mantle is generally of basaltic composition. Under normal conditions, the composition of basaltic magma requires it to crystallize between 50 and 70% plagioclase, with the bulk of the remainder of the magma crystallizing as mafic minerals. However, anorthosites are defined by a high plagioclase content (90–100% plagioclase), and are not found in association with contemporaneous ultramafic rocks. This is now known as 'the anorthosite problem'. "

Mallet = see Tools & Techniques section

Maquette = small model 3 –dimensional sketch on which a larger sculpture is based.

Marble = is a rock resulting from metamorphism of sedimentary carbonate rocks, (most commonly limestone or dolomite). Metamorphism causes re-crystallization of the original carbonate mineral grains. The resulting marble rock is typically composed of an interlocking mosaic of carbonate crystals. Original textures and structures of the carbonate rock (the protolith) have been modified or destroyed.

Pure white marble is the result of metamorphism of a very pure (silicate-poor) limestone or dolomite protolith. For the carver it is an advantage not to have silica in limestone or marble. The characteristic swirls and veins of many colored marble varieties are usually due to various mineral impurities such as clay, silt, sand, iron oxides, or chert which were originally present as grains or layers in the limestone. Green coloration (serpentine) is often due to high magnesium in the limestone or dolostone mostly with silica impurities.

Marble has become a cultural symbol of tradition and refined taste, its extra cultural value is no doubt because it was the favourite medium for Greek and Roman sculptors. It's extremely varied and colourful patterns make it a favourite decorative material, and it is often imitated in painted walls, background patterns for computer displays, 'marbled' end pages in books, etc.

Margin = a limit in a condition or process, beyond or below which something is no longer possible or acceptable.

Massebah= a stone pillar

Mason = builder and worker in stone; a workman who dresses and lays stone in building, later on a freemason. There are many forms and spellings, one from Medieval Latin are machio, Isidore, in the 7th century, explains the word as a derivative of machina (machine). The ultimate etymology of the word mason is obscure. Some scholars have suggested that the word is from the root of L. maceria - wall. On the other hand, the stem mattion- agrees with the OHG. Mezzo (also in comb. steinmezzo, mod.G. steinmetz, stonemason): prehistoric mattjon-..]

The freemasons are a secret organization that grew out of Masonic guilds, but powerful and influential non-masons began joining, and it soon took a life as its own.

Mason's Boast = these are the individual and characteristic marks that result as a mason 'dresses' a stone. An individual mason's way of dressing a stone is said to be as individual as handwriting.

Mason's stroke = by holding a chisel at 90 degrees a masons stroke smashes the stone by an 'organised sweep' with each successive stroke lowering the surface.

Mason's drag = a hand-held abrasive tool, with metal scrapers embedded in a wooden base.

Mausoleum = named for Mausolus, (died c. 353 b.c.), King of Caria, whose wife, Artemisia, built one of the Seven Wonders of the World. A chamber or structure used, or intended to be used, for entombment. A building that houses crypts for burial. A community mausoleum is for many families, and a private mausoleum is generally sold for the use of a single family.

Megalith = a "big rock". Most famous megaliths are not sepulchral. Memorial - cenotaph. The physical identification of an interment space. Generally has at least the name, date of birth, and date of death of the deceased and may include an epitaph or commemoration of the life, deeds, or career of the deceased person. From the Greek: "great stone"; sometimes wrongly used to describe megalithic monuments

Menhir = Breton/Cornish word for single standing stone, but sometimes used loosely for other megalithic monuments. 'Men' means 'stone' and 'hir' means 'tall' or 'upright'.

Mesolithic = Middle Stone Age, between Paleolithic and Neolithic, from around 7000 BCE to 4500 BCE.

Metamorphic = Metamorphic rocks are formed by subjecting any rock type (including previously-formed metamorphic rock) to different temperature and pressure conditions than those in which the original rock was formed. These temperatures and pressures are always higher than those at the Earth's surface and must be sufficiently high so as to change the original minerals into other mineral types or else into other forms of the same minerals (e.g. by re-crystallisation).

Metasomatism = the chemical alteration of a rock by fluids, hydrothermal liquids. Metasomatic albite + hornblende + tourmaline alteration of metamorphosed granite, Stone Mountain, Atlanta in the igneous environment, metasomatism creates skarns, greisen, and may affect hornfels if they are in the contact metamorphic aureole adjacent to an intrusive rock mass. In the metamorphic environment, metasomatism is created by mass transfer from a volume of metamorphic rock at higher stress and temperature into a zone with lower stress and temperature, with metamorphic hydrothermal solutions acting as a solvent. Metamorphic rocks within the deep crust can lose fluids and dissolve mineral components with this fluid percolating up into the shallow levels of the crust to chemically change and alter the adjacent rocks. Metasomatism is open system behaviour, different from classical metamorphism which is the in-situ mineralogical change of a rock without appreciable change in the chemistry of the rock.

Mode = an employed method or approach.

Moissanite = moissanite is a mineral that was discovered by Henri Moissan while examining rock samples from a meteorite crater. He thought at first they were diamonds, but later identified the material as silicon carbide. The only terrestrial source is in kimberlite. It is too rare to have commercial value but a synthesized version called Carborundum is commonly in use.

Mortar = (term used in masonry) is a material used to fill gaps between blocks and bind them together.

Musical Stones = there are many ways that stones make noise, both natural and constructed. Sometimes rocks are shaped so that they whistle or 'sing' in the wind. There are specific beaches around the world where the sand 'sings' when walked upon. Pebbles moved about in a mountain stream's strong current have a characteristic sound. There are scholar stones that ring when tapped with a hammer, musical columns, Ting ting stones (originate from Japan).

Monolith = single stone block, monument or pillar. This word comes from the Greek monos (one) and lithos (stone).

Monumentality = visual expression describing the vast imposing presence of a monument. The area of the tomb with maximum monumentality is usually that of the façade area. Here visual impact is greatest.

Moraine = is any glacially formed accumulation of glacial debris.

Monument = an upright memorial, including what used to be called a tombstone, also includes large structures like obelisks, usually made from granite.

Mound = of either earth or stone pebbles, generally covering a burial chamber or deposit.


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