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Barrow = round or long mound of earth, usually over burial chamber. Can take many different shapes and is often surrounded by a ditch. A long barrow is an extended tumulus, an un-chambered long barrow is a long tumulus without a burial chamber, and a chambered barrow is a tumulus containing a tomb, generally megalithic.
BasRelief = (low relief)
Barrow = is a small mountain raised over a grave. Ancient warlords hoped that the raised ground would give them a high profile in subsequent history. Few barrows have tombstones, however, so we are unable to name these ancient warlords.
Basalt = is a dark-coloured, fine-grained, basic extrusive rock. Basalt and related rocks typically occur hard and blocky weathering rocks in lava flows, which have rapidly cooled at the earth's surface. Used extensively worldwide for building, and for streetmaking, much basalt is today crushed as a source of hard rock aggregate.
Beaker people = are a community of continental people who first entered Britain around 2600 BCE, their name coming from the distinctive and elegant pots that were often buried with the dead under round barrows. They may have been the first metal-users in the British Isles.
Bedrock = bedrock is solid ground. Bedrock is the native consolidated rock underlying the surface of the Earth. Above the bedrock is usually an area of broken and weathered unconsolidated rock in the basal subsoil. The top of the bedrock is known as rock-head and identifying this through various means is an important task in most civil engineering projects.
Beerstone = is a creamy-white, fine-textured limestone that takes its name from the town of Beer, Devon, where it has been quarried and mined since Roman times. It is also found in other places in southwest England. Because of its fine grain, it is a "live stone", which means that it can be sawn or squared up in any direction - the crystal structure does not restrict the directions in which it can be worked; furthermore when first mined, it is relatively soft and easily cut, but it hardens with exposure to the air. This makes it relatively easy to work. Stone from the Beer Quarry was used in the construction of Exeter Cathedral, St Paul's Cathedral, Westminster Abbey, and Windsor Castle as well as for many town and village churches. Extraction was particularly intense during the Middle Ages. Much of the quarrying ceased in the 1920s. Parts of the Beer mine are open to the public as a tourist attraction. An adit to the mine was exposed by a landslip in the late 18th Century and can be seen from the South West Coast Path east of Branscombe.
Biotite = hexagonal or magnesia mica. Named after Jean-Baptiste Biot, a French mineralogist.
Bluestones = the name given to the mixture of stones, mainly of dolerite, probably from the Preseli mountains of Dyfed. Bluestone was used at Stonehenge
Bluestone axes = ancient tools, such as axes used to carve granite, have been discovered all over the British Isles. Many of these are made from Preseli Bluestone.
Boning in = making a flatsurface. The term is used in masonry to indicate the preparatory flattening of a stone, in surveying it means locating and driving pegs in the ground so that their tops are in a line marking a desired gradient.
Boast = stone dressed roughly with a broad chisel. There is an old expression: "You can tell a mason by his boast."
Broch = round tower-like drystone structure, confined mainly to the North and West of Scotland, and dating to the Iron Age.
Bronze = Alloy in which copper is dominant supplemented by smaller amounts of tin or lead.
Bronze Age = period from around 2200 to 800 BCE, following the Neolithic and preceding the Iron Age, characterised by the use of bronze for the manufacture of tools and weapons.
Bush Hammer = also known as a Bouchard.
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